Clay Court in Tennis: What Are The Differences?

Let’s learn a bit about the basic structure of a clay court in the traditional structure with natural materials and ClayTech clay court.

The first is traditional clay courts in France and Italy with almost 100% natural materials. Specifically, the basic structure of these pitches is as follows:

  • The lowest layer is gravel and small stone for quick drainage, if the outdoor yard is invested a lot of money, right under the rock and gravel there is a drainage system.
  • Next is the material taken from iron ore: waste materials of iron ore.
  • Next is a hard lime layer with about 5 – 7cm thick.
  • Top layer: People use a mixture of fine clay mixed with brick to blend in a certain formula to form a layer of flour and this layer of flour is evenly spread on the ground.

It is the top 2 layers that make a big difference to the clay court which makes the ball bounce high but slow. We can see the difference between Madrid Master 2012 and Rome Master 2012. The clay ground in Rome Master bounces higher and slower than the Madrid Master 2012 yard. The steps of running or bouncing down the red dust flying very clearly. The surface of the upcoming Roland Garros is the same standard and structure as the Rome Master.

ClayTech ground

The yard at Madrid Master is a hard plastic surface and converted into clay court using ClayTech technique. The basic structure of Clay Tech clay court includes:

  • The bottom layer of ClayTech clay ground is a mixture of concrete mixed with synthetic resin such as the common Hard Court yard.
  • Next is a layer of glue.
  • The top layer is called ClayTech: ClayTech consists of a buffer layer with Synthetic – polypropylene material and covered on top is a special powder mixture. It is no longer pure clay mixed with ground bricks, but replaced by a layer of industrial clay powder that has properties similar to clay mixed with ground bricks. And this layer of flour and the bounce of the ball faster makes Nadal, Djokovic and other players complain about the pitch at the Madrid Master recently.

North Carolina Town Is a Mecca for Ceramics Artists

Potter Kate Johnston creates a dynamic pitcher with a wide, plump belly and an elongated neck; and a curved, flower-like spout. It’s her own model of a conventional pouring pot known as the Rebecca jug, and it illustrates her affinity for gambling with proportions and aesthetics in her paintings—considered one of her preferred components of ceramics. Like many potters living a few of the wealthy ceramics traditions of Seagrove, North Carolina, Johnston has found that operating there has driven her to take an revolutionary technique to the medium.
“After putting a work in historical context, I will ask my own questions of it, and have my own say at this point in time,” she reflects.
Her husband Daniel Johnston, a ceramics artist now that specialize in excellent artwork, is currently finishing a everlasting installation for the North Carolina Museum of art in Raleigh. Through growing his huge utilitarian urns a number of the professional artists of Seagrove, he’s immersed in timber-firing techniques that are over 500 years vintage, having originated in Thailand and China. “Seagrove is constructed from a large group of potters working collectively in a small vicinity that honestly pushes each different forward—and they do do that right away,” he observes. “There’s lots of stimulation and quite a few understanding.”

Targeted in 2005 as the “kingdom Birthplace of North Carolina traditional Pottery,” Seagrove owes its deep ceramics roots to geology. The excessive hills and interaction with the coastal plain inside the place “lets in ash to settle in the water to create absolutely right clays,” explains Lindsey Lambert, executive director of the North Carolina Pottery center.
The clay’s origins trace again extra than 500 million years, when tectonic shifts and volcanic interest shaped the Uwharrie mountain range in significant North Carolina. Molten rock just under the Earth’s surface in this a part of the Piedmont plateau became densely packed and, over the route of thousands and thousands of years, became igneous rock and then finer soil, considerable with feldspar minerals—calcium, alumina, silica, and sodium. at some stage in firings, silica hardens clay, while alumina slows the baking manner to save you cracking or breaking. And artists have been mining the fabric for hundreds of years.
Early ceramic manufacturing in what is now vital North Carolina changed into taking place 300 years in the past. The indigenous human beings of the Saponi, Keyauwee, and Siouan cultures were growing useful and ceremonial objects from redware clay. And in the 18th and 19th centuries, because the region have become greater handy to ecu colonists—due to the the splendid Wagon street and a chief teach depot designed by engineer Edwin G. Seagroves—they, too, discovered that pottery ought to offer a critical source of earnings.
These days, the general environment among Seagrove potters is collegial, with artists driven to find their very own direction, explains artist Crystal King, who runs her own pottery. “Seeing each different’s paintings all the time is refreshing and provoking, and it additionally raises the bar,” she says.
Each potter on the town tends to be recognized for something unique—be it a sure kind of work or method, or for ingenious materials. King is thought for the duration of the autumn season for her wheel-thrown pumpkins with handcrafted stems and leaves; like many of her peers, she uses her own glaze recipes. Eck McCanless is renowned for agateware, which entails mixing multiple colours of clay collectively to create swirls and spirals. Frank Neef makes crystalline-glazed porcelain pieces, stimulated by means of pots from the music Dynasty in China and the Koryo Dynasty in Korea. Takuro Shibata’s Studio Touya is thought for growing traditional jap ash glazes. And Jennie Keatts creates earrings inlaid with hand-painted stones, the use of glazes developed by means of Pamela Owens of Jugtown Pottery.

Types of Clay Used in Handmade

Extremely popular clay in life from modeling clay for young children to handmade clay. Clay makes it easy to shape and blend colors to satisfy your imagination. If you want to try making some DIY items from clay, let’s read this article carefully.

Clay is a soft and flexible substance when it is moist so it is easy to shape. The clay will become solid when dry and become a solid when heated at high temperatures. So clay is very useful in the craft field. From different types of clay will produce different types of materials when baked in different conditions such as ceramic, porcelain or earthenware. Basic clay is mainly white, gray, red depending on the compound in clay.

In the field of handmade we mainly have 3 basic types based on their properties including polymer, air dry and non-dry clay.

Air dry clay: Dry after molding with normal ambient temperature. Use art creation. High price. Originated from Japan and spread to countries like Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, etc. Air-dry clay is mainly white. After shaping by hand, the clay will be dry and hard when exposed to air. This clay does not tolerate water even with resin. This clay is colored with acrylic or mixed with oil paint.

Polymer Clay: Use an oven or water bath. Made from synthetic plastic polyvinylchloride polymer. Easy to create images by hand. Good adhesion, durability and beautiful. Use heat (can use an oven with appropriate temperature & time or water bath) to heat polymer clay. Due to its extreme durability & long shelf life, it is suitable for making jewelry, dolls, models, etc. However, this clay cannot be rolled like dry clay. There is also a type of thin clay to cover the surface or stick to the product.

Non-dry clay: Colorful, soft, easy to form, fragrant and reusable many times should be used as modeling clay for children.

Handmade products from handmade clay are extremely diverse such as chibi / dolls, earth flower paintings, mini food, keychains, earth flowers, jewelry, accessories, etc.

5 best statues in sports

What do statues simply represent? Do they educate history, honor history or be records themselves? Can they face up to the test of time? The standards have to be high, and that goes for the statues that represent the heroes of yank sports activities.

Sports statue-figure has exploded within the final couple of many years, frequently as part of new stadium and arena creation. So selecting the top 5 American sports statues turned into no small project. Under consideration: the figure honored, what he or she represented, and how well the statue pondered who he or she became, as an athlete and a person.

Oh, earlier than the query even comes up – which means real individual, no longer a film character. So don’t search for the Rocky statue on the steps of the museum in Philadelphia. Also, don’t look for the Heisman Trophy (it’s just that, a trophy) or the Joe Louis Fist in Detroit (falls underneath “sculpture” more than statue).

The pinnacle 5 list continues to be worthy.

  1. Michael Jordan (1994, United Center, Chicago)

Nicknamed “Spirit,” it stands before the building he almost actually built, after his retirement following his first NBA championship 3-peat. it is him, become his emblem, turned back into him in bronze.

2. Pat Tillman
( 2007, college of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Ariz)

It captures the most well-known picture of Tillman as a player, which itself is exceptional remembered as a sports activities Illustrated cover. It become erected 3 years after his death while serving within the battle in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2004.

3. Steve Gleason
(2012, Superdome, New Orleans)

It commemorates more than simply the maximum famous blocked punt in Saints history – hence the title “Rebirth,” because it came inside the first sport inside the Superdome in 2006 after the storm Katrina catastrophe. Gleason’s subsequent war with ALS makes the sculpture greater poignant.

4. Tommie Smith and John Carlos
(2005, San Jose Kingdom (Calif.) college)

the 2 track stars who raised their fists all through the countrywide anthem on the 1968 Olympics had been San Jose state graduates. The statue become a belated welcome-again, after Smith and Carlos received good sized scorn upon coming back from Mexico town 4 a long time earlier. Silver medalist Peter Norman insisted that he not be depicted in his spot at the stand.

5. Shaquille O’Neal
(2017, Staples Center, Los Angeles)

It’s as specific and innovative as a statue has ever been, but additionally so … Shaqtastic. O’Neal placing from a rim suspended 10 ft high is quite the distinction from the rest of the statues of diverse stars on the area. Any future rim-putting sculpture will only faded in evaluation to the original.

Ethnic People Use Clay to Make Hair and Makeup

The strange hairstyles made of clay have created a characteristic for the ancient Himba tribe in Namibia.

Perhaps the Himba tribe in Namibia is a unique tribe left in the world with very special customs. Over many generations, Himba’s semi-nomadic tribe still lives as primitive despite the development of the world of outsiders to an unbelievable level of science and technology.

Instead of using cosmetics, they make Otjize, a red substance, used to apply to skin and hair. Women here do not wear bras, women only wear a loincloth to cover the lower body, the rest are still bare even when meeting strangers.

Himba people are also known by other names as Omuhimba people or Ovahimba people living mainly in western Kaokoland, in northern Namibia. Because of living in one of the harshest areas of the planet, their water resources are extremely scarce. That’s why the Himba people have never bathed all their lives. The use of bath water is a trance in the tribe.

Instead, they use Otjize to clean and protect the skin from the sun. The substance is red soil, derived from fat. Himba people apply Otjize to the whole body, then use medicinal powder in combination with other herbs and then burn it to burst. This is their “bath” way. Otjize has the meaning to represent the earth, blood and the beauty of the tribe is still about 50,000 members.

From puberty, Himba women began to braid their hair into strands, each day, they spent about a few hours to take care of their hair, take clay and red soil to apply it to their hair in order to maintain a perfect shape.

Photographer Franco Cappellari, 61, from Venafro recounted his experience in the same tribe. Women are extremely conscious of beauty and spend a lot of time on their looks. Although there are still a few children still wearing T-shirts, the Himba tribe are hardly Westernized. The government of Namibia has specific policies to protect Himba from external impacts.

Dazzled before 7 glamorous wax statues of players

The top stars in the world always have extremely special ways of gratitude, one of which is to build statues. Here are 7 beautiful wax statues of famous, lifelike stars created in recent years.

  1. David Beckham
    To pay tribute to David Beckham’s dedication to English football, his wax figure and his beautiful wife were erected at the Madame Tussauds museum in London. This real-looking statue even made many spectators mistaken for real people.
  2. Zlatan Ibrahimovic
    Zlatan Ibrahimovic was erected because of his unrelenting contributions to Paris Saint-Germain, which is currently on display at the museum in France.
  3. Lionel Messi
    Messi was made a wax figure and erected in London’s Wembley Stadium after a great performance in the Champions League in 2011. The statue was released to the public in 2012.
  4. Mesut Ozil
    Mesut Ozil was erected a statue at the Madame Tussauds museum in Berlin in June 2013, this was the time when the midfielder was particularly impressed at Real Madrid, gaining a lot of success.
  5. Cristiano Ronaldo
    This is a statue of Cristiano Ronaldo himself, made at his own Museum in his home town of Madeira. In addition to this statue, there are a total of 140 artifacts from the trophy, the shirt to the medal, the ball is displayed by Cristiano Ronaldo here.
     Information on Diario Sport said, Cristiano Ronaldo has spent $ 31,000 to put an identical wax statue yourself. This statue will be used to introduce friends and family members to see instead of going to the museum.

Ronaldo has now been sculpted a wax statue at a museum in Madrid, where he is playing for the Real club.

6. Neymar
The molded Neymar wax-like statue made him cheerfully present, this is a statue made in 2018 in Brazil.

7. Kylian Mbappe
The Grevin Musee Museum in France made a wax statue similar to Paris Saint-Germain star Kylian Mbappe striker to mark this striker’s merits all the time.

NASA Discovered A Large Aamount of Clay Minerals on Mars

Robot discovered Curiosity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently discovered the largest amount of clay minerals since the robot was put on Mars in August 2012.

Curiosity was launched on Mars from Earth in November 2011 and spent more than half a year net to land on the planet in August 2012. The Curiosity probe is equipped with 17 cameras, weighs about 900 kg and can reach a maximum speed of 3.8cm / sec. When operating on the surface of Mars, Curiosity undertakes the search for evidence of microorganisms while collecting data and images of Mars. The preparation for Curiosity’s mission lasts for two years and costs about $ 2 billion.

According to a new NASA announcement, two specimens that Curiosity found when drilling two rock targets were named Aberlady and Kilmarie. These specimens contained the highest amount of clay ever discovered in NASA’s mission. Both of these drilling goals were discovered when Curiosity took a new selfie on May 12. The area of high clay content is located on the side of the low area in Mount Sharp. This region was originally outside of NASA’s discovery trajectory before Curiosity was brought to Mars in 2012.

Apart from that, Curiosity is currently working on the discovery of Sharrp Mountain (5500 meters high) to see if the area has conditions to support life billions of years ago. Therefore, the new discovery plays an important role in this task because clay is often formed in water, an essential chemical compound for life. Curiosity’s mineralogical analysis tool, CheMin, brought to Earth the first analysis of the drilling samples in the area of much clay.

In addition, during this drill and analysis, Curiosity uses a black and white navigation camera to capture clouds drifting on May 7 and May 12. These clouds may be ice clouds (containing water), about 31km from the Martian surface.

Learn poetry, do math by … clay

Instead of “miserable” memorizing a poem, students in a school in England play with clay. As a result, they still know the poem.
A late morning in the classroom of 11-year-old children is preparing for a public speaking lesson. Maybe you will think of this scene right away: a red-faced student stood “deadly” in front of his classmates, struggling to pull from the memory of a new poem that he had learned an hour earlier.

However, in Stoke, England, there will be no such thing, because students can do everything in a completely different way.

“It’s a pleasure to use your hands,” said Mohammed Abouebaida, a seventh-grader at Thistley Hough Academy, cheerfully showing off while molding and molding a piece of wet clay.

Around him, classmates are also molding soldiers and creating tanks and barbed wire – symbols in the First World poems they are about to present.

As explained by Alison Ward, the teacher in charge, the idea here is that children will learn better when they are active.

“They really like and enthusiastically participate. If you tell them to remember a poem, it sounds dry. This forces them to use other techniques to help them complete their tasks, not must learn only parrots “.

In schools across Stoke, clay is being brought back to the classroom to preserve the city’s proud ceramics heritage, and also to maintain creativity in its teaching program.

Nearly 1,000 students in 15 schools across the region have traditionally made pottery, Staffordshire Potteries, were introduced to clay for the first time this year according to the program of putting clay in schools.

The program wants every student in Stoke to use clay in the classroom by 2021, when the city hopes to be the cultural city of England.

At the pilot schools, teachers reported positive results for “difficult” students, especially boys.

“They are really involved in this work with creativity and the ability to express themselves in the image through clay,” Julia Rogers – design director of Thistley Hough, a large high school in the periphery of Stoke city center, said.

Thistley Hough recently had students from Afghanistan, Iraq, Cuba and the Philippines, and of the 719 students in the school English is not the native language of 309 children. This also means that clay is a particularly effective way to teach.

“It’s a visual language, so there’s no barrier,” Rogers said.

Schools participating in this program brought clay to topics throughout the curriculum, from science to English, history and art.

In math, students will use clay to learn geometry. It is still too early to say that this new approach has affected the test results, but the teachers said that students seem to be more actively involved and the number of students choosing to study arts has increased – left contrary to the trend across the country.

At St Peter’s, clay’s “incredible” return seems to have increased student pride in the Staffordshire Potteries area. This city, like many other places in post-industrial areas, used to struggle to overcome the decline of the ceramic industry, but now people are full of hope.

With Lizzie Critchley, 13, an art student at St Peter’s, pottery can be something she pursues as a true career to follow her grandfather. “That’s what we have known – we have an area filled with ceramic kilns,” she said proudly.

Her classmate, Jorja Wright, 14, said during her family’s vacation in Florida two years ago, she was “stunned” to accidentally flip a plate over and know it was made in Your home city.

Pottery is probably not included in her future plans, but Jorja is now interested in participating in this pottery work: “You have to do whatever you want, no rules.”

Mysterious Civilizations Attached to Clay

Below are the mysterious civilizations with traces left made of clay.

Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (3,500 BC – 1,800 BC – BC), also known as Caral civilization or Caral-Supe, contains many mysteries. Originally this was the Chico settlement located north of the capital Lima (Peru) today.

The most impressive achievement of Norte Chico civilization is the massive architecture and weaving. Especially the pyramids and complex irrigation systems make Norte Chico become a place with developed agriculture and capable of self-sufficiency. Today, in this land, there are many massive ancient works, including pyramids and the rest of the complex irrigation systems. So far, six pyramids have been discovered in Peru, including the largest pyramid called Piramide Mayor. There is no evidence that the Norte Chico people were involved in war or conflict. Settlements centered around the three major rivers should cause the destruction of this civilization to be assumed to be due to prolonged droughts that have caused the population to die or migrate.

Nineveh civilization

The Nineveh civilization (6,000 – 612 BC) was one of the oldest and greatest civilizations in the world. King Sennacherib (704 – 681 BC) decided to take Nineveh as the capital of the Assyrian Empire, building a large wall with 15 surrounding gates and other works such as parks, canals, bridges and a palace. Some scholars believe that the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon in Nineveh were built by this king.

In addition to the above architectures, there is a huge library in Nineveh, containing more than 30,000 clay tablets depicting patterns and data. Scholars and scholars rushed here to make Nineveh a center of art, science and architecture of the Middle East at that time. One of the most unusual articles found here is similar in content to Noah’s Ark (Noah’s boat), the Book of Genesis in the Bible.

Vinca civilization

Vinca civilization (5,000 – 3,500 BC) is the world’s earliest written civilization, with about 700 characters, most of which are found in the form of carvings on pottery. Vinca’s farming system makes it one of the most developed Neolithic cultures that people have ever known. The first archaeological evidence was discovered in 1908 at Belo Brdo hill near Belgrade. Settlements are believed to have existed for more than 1,000 years before being abandoned. Each of these settlements contained several thousand people living in houses made of clay and mud mixed with straw.

Statue of “The King of Stamford Bridge”

Lynn Osgood and Elaine Hutchinson, and former Chelsea players contributed to the statue of “The King of Stamford Bridge”. The work has just been opened last Friday.

The two wives of Peter Osgood and the former teammate who once stood with him, Ian Hutchinson, who knew Osgood better than anyone, co-directed the sculptor Philip Jackson to sketch the most complete picture of Chelsea’s legend.

They succeeded when the statue showed a true image of the 9th star for a while.

“It’s amazing,” Mrs Lynn said on the club’s official website. “People were worried a lot when the work was going on but now they all show interest in the work.”

“I was anxious to wonder what the statue would look like when it was finished, but when I saw the statue, I found it more beautiful than I imagined it was a thousand times.”

“The work perfectly describes him. It shows the personality and personality of Peter – The King of Stamford Bridge,” she added.

Contributing for a long time apart from Lynn (left photo) also has Elaine (right photo), wife of Ian Hutchinson, another Chelsea legend. Ian is a close friend of Osgood both on and off the pitch. They even managed a pub together.
“We were assigned to search for images before,” explained Elaine.

“Lynn has a lot of pictures but I also found many other photos of Peter and Ian while they were still together.”

“The working time is very touching. People give love to the work in different ways. But worry also covers everyone during that time. Everyone is afraid that the incident will happen and lead to When I see the statue people will say, ‘That’s not Peter.’

“But everything is perfect after all. The way he stands there is like saying: ‘Come on, whether you leave or stay! – I’m still here forever.’

In charge of club history, Mr. Rick Glanvill also helped Jackson in creating shoes, shirts of the 60s and 70s, even the ball on the statue.

“I’m grateful to Rick,” said Mrs. Lynn. “He provided us with photos, videos, books and everything related to Osgood.”

“The work requires a lot of work but without errors at any stage, Philip has created a great work.”

Darren, Osgood’s son, was also excited to admire his father’s bronze statue. After the death of Peter Osgood in 2006, Mrs Lynn built a charity called The Peter Osgood Trust, an established organization that helps improve the lives of disadvantaged children and young citizens in London. . This organization received many contributions from Chelsea fans. On this occasion, Mrs. Lynn also thanked everyone who contributed to the development of the charity.

“It is associated with the name of Peter Osgood, I hope everyone will join hands to develop this meaningful organization.”